The cognitive dissonance theory

The disconfirmed prophecy caused them acute cognitive-dissonance: The second type of needs deals with reputation, status, recognition, and respect from colleagues. Forced compliance theory In the Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliancethe investigators Festinger and Merrill Carlsmith asked students to spend an hour doing tedious tasks; e.

Cognitive Dissonance: A Crash Course

Their replies suggested that the participants who were paid twenty dollars had an external incentive to adopt that positive attitude, and likely perceived the twenty dollars as the reason for saying the task was interesting, rather than saying the task actually was interesting.

The importance of the subject to us. Their attitudes changed to fit their behavior, reducing the uncomfortable feeling of dissonance.

Leon Festinger

Therefore, the brain is an inference machine which attempts to actively predict and explain its sensations. Things get interesting when you start to consider how people deal with the inconsistency.

Common to each paradigm of cognitive-dissonance theory is the tenet: In the 'mild embarrassment' condition, participants read aloud to a male experimenter a list of sex-related words like 'virgin' and 'prostitute.

A patient with specific phobia is not motivated to seek out the phobic stimulus because it acts as a punisher, and is over-motivated to avoid it negative reinforcement. Human Relations, 1 2— Why Deal with it At All?

Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger)

Consumers employ the strategy of continual information by engaging in bias and searching for information that supports prior beliefs. For example, Harmon-Jones and colleagues showed that people experience dissonance even when the consequences of their statements are beneficial—as when they convince sexually active students to use condoms, when they, themselves are not using condoms.

How Explicit Choices Implicitly Shape Preferences of Odors contradict such an explanation, by showing the occurrence of revaluation of material items, after the person chose and decided, even after having forgotten the choice.

Alternatively, consumers might change attitude, such as re-evaluating price in relation to external reference-prices or associating high prices and low prices with quality.

The analysis of sociograms using matrix algebra. The occurrence of cognitive dissonance produces a state of negative affectwhich motivates the person to reconsider the causative behaviour, in order to resolve the psychologic inconsistency that caused the mental stress.

A Longitudinal Analysis from the International Tobacco Control ITC Four Country Survey indicated that smokers use justification beliefs to reduce their cognitive dissonance about smoking tobacco and the negative consequences of smoking tobacco.

Stress was way up there on the list. This reinterpretation of the original Festinger and Carlsmith study, using the induced-compliance paradigm, proposed that the dissonance was between the cognitions "I am an honest person. Extrinsic motivation thus contrasts with intrinsic motivation, which is doing an activity simply for the enjoyment of the activity itself, instead of for its instrumental value.

Could we generalize the results from such experiments? The rub is that making a decision cuts off the possibility that you can enjoy the advantages of the unchosen alternative, yet it assures you that you must accept the disadvantages of the chosen alternative.

Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27 4— From the perspective of The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: The existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, will motivate the person to try to reduce the dissonance and achieve consonance.

Instead, two other conditions need to be in place: Retinal image smear as a source of information about magnitude of eye-movement. In his paper, Festinger again systematically set forth a series of hypotheses, corollaries, and derivations, and he cited existing experimental evidence where available.


And even worse, from a broader point of view we do not seem to have been working on many of the important problems. Cognitive dissonance theory[ edit ] Main article: It is because of this phenomenon that studies have shown that people are more intrigued in performing mundane activities so long as there is company because it provides the opportunity to interact in one way or another, be it for bonding, amusement, collaboration, or alternative perspectives.

The psychological effects of insufficient rewards. They were paid a lot of money to lie, and that explained why they lied. Psychological Review, 49, —Cognitive dissonance is a very powerful motivator which will often lead us to change one or other of the conflicting belief or action.

The discomfort often feels like a tension between the two opposing thoughts. Cognitive dissonance theory was based on abstract/internal/mental concepts, which were, of course, anathema to the behaviorists.

Festinger and Carlsmith set.

Cognitive Dissonance

While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance.

The cognitive miser perspective makes people want to justify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they put into cognition. Psychologist Leon Festinger first described the theory of cognitive dissonance in According to Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when people’s thoughts and feelings are inconsistent with their behavior, which results in an uncomfortable, disharmonious feeling.

The theory of cognitive dissonance was developed in by a social psychologist named Leon Festinger. It’s since become one of the most influential theories in the field of psychology. Leon Festinger introduced cognitive dissonance theory in a book, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance.

Festinger's theory said that when a person holds contradictory elements in cognition (producing an unpleasant state called dissonance) the person will work to bring the elements back into agreement or congruence.

The cognitive dissonance theory
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